For example, let's say every React component has a test and a style file: One can already see that this doesn't scale well, because with every additional component in the src/ folder we will lose more sight of every individual component. Se stai avviando un progetto, non spendere pi di cinque minuti per scegliere una struttura di file. ionic And then there's the really big issue: refactoring. All Rights Reserved. These two extend the Airbnb rules. UI components). This helps the application to stay healthy and scalable as it grows. If we open it up, we see something a bit curious: This is essentially a redirection. It's possible to manage these conflicts, but it's a big pain. Learn React like 50.000+ readers. Small React(ion): From Kanji to Hiragana. instead of re-rendering the only parent container with its three children.

Built on Forem the open source software that powers DEV and other inclusive communities. For example, for the List component it most often looks like this: The App component in its component.js file can still import the List component the following way: In JavaScript, we can omit the /index.js for the imports, because it's the default: The naming of these files is already opinionated: For example, test.js can become spec.js or style.css can become styles.css if a pluralization of files is desired. You might want to fork it, to match your preferred conventions. I just like the way it looks. React non ha opinioni su come organizzi i file nelle cartelle. But what if the hook is generic, and meant to be used by lots of components? First, I want to make it easy to import components. I rarely make custom hooks, but I still keep the folder there in case I have some genius idea that needs to be a hook. All that stuff lives in a category.helpers.js file, inside src/helpers. With you every step of your journey. I've omitted this section because it depends what tools you use. Man mano che i progetti crescono, nella pratica spesso adottano una combinazione dei due approcci precedenti. For example: this blog has multiple blog post categories, like React, CSS, and Animations. As I mentioned right at the top, there's no right/wrong way to manage file structure. I always struggled to use SVG in my React applications. A component can have child components or subcomponents (components that are only used by or relevant to their parent component). After all, if you are not going beyond midsize React projects, this is in my opinion the way to go to structure your React components. Sometimes, a function will start in a component-specific file (eg. Having all this written, I hope it helps one or the other person or team structuring their React project. These include: As a real example, let's talk about the FileViewer component, used in this blog post for the interactive file explorer demo. Since every React project grows in size over time, most of the folder structures evolve very naturally as well.

The index.js does a metaphorical 301 REDIRECT to src/components/FileViewer/FileViewer.js. Sometimes a component needs to be split into smaller components But no utility library will have all of the utilities I need. Almost same. Like all nice things, Webpack aliases have trade-offs. I've been using it since 2015, and I still feel excited when I get to work with React. It may seem over-engineered, but this structure ticks all of my boxes, and I love it. JavaScript constants) into dedicated files, you can scale this approach horizontally within the component folder: If you decide to keep your List/component.js more lightweight by extracting the ListItem component in its own file, then you may want to try the following folder structure: Here again, you can go one step further by giving the component its own nested folder with all other technical concerns like tests and styles: Important: From here on you need to be careful not to nest too deeply your components into each other. And it takes 0 seconds to figure out where to place each new file you create. If you just want to see the code, here you go: https://github.com/djamaile/react-boilerplate-2020. It is currently summer vacation for me and I will be working on side projects. Definitely an extra source of friction. So let's get started. You signed in with another tab or window. They can still re-publish the post if they are not suspended. Check out a recent issue! While some of them are reusable (e.g. Here's an interactive file explorer. This locks you in. typescript In generale, una buona idea tenere i file che cambiano spesso insieme uno vicino allaltro. In the routes folder, I keep my routes! I want a components directory, a hooks directory, a helpers directory, and so on. And everything keeps working as before, It helps keep things organized, and makes it very clear which imports/styles/whatever are used by which components. If you don't like it, you can unsubscribe in 1 click. Every strategy has trade-offs. You're welcome to use my package if you'd like! I created a boilerplate repository that I can re-use for every side project.

I don't want that. I've worked one-on-one with tons of developers, answering their questions and helping them get unstuck. From here, it becomes more interesting yet also more opinionated. For further actions, you may consider blocking this person and/or reporting abuse. Are there any best practices for this? Every React component grows in complexity eventually. Updated on Aug 6, 2021, (I have updated my react structure, you can read it here: https://dev.to/djamaile/how-i-structure-my-react-ts-applications-2021-145j). colors, font sizes, breakpoints), but I also store public keys and other app data here. When this happens sometimes a container is better off as a regular component with Button), others are more feature related (e.g. makes refactors more painful, so it might be smarter to connect the child components in this case and leave the

Help Provide Humanitarian Aid to Ukraine. To type the mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps functions in the container we want to export types created by using Pick. Naturalmente, questa solo una raccomandazione e potrebbe non essere rilevante per il tuo progetto. It will become hidden in your post, but will still be visible via the comment's permalink. In contrast, I encourage you to apply your personal touch to it. Files can contain as many components as you'd like! It simplifies imports. Feel free to poke around and see how things are structured!

Why not use an established utility library, like lodash? I want to be able to write this: Next: when I'm working in my IDE, I don't want to be flooded with index.js files. Lastly, the theme folder and the theme folder is for Material-UI. There are other bundlers, but most common tools (eg. They're collected in the src/hooks directory. How should you structure the files and directories in your applications? Questo principio chiamato colocation. So once we add a new property to the IDefaultProps interface, TypeScript is not going to let us compile until we go to the component and add a default value to it. Each component has it's own directory, with a component file, a styles file, and its typings and tests. Detto questo, ci sono alcuni approcci popolari nellecosistema che potresti prendere in considerazione. This gives us another vertical layer for creating folders for other technical categories. For example, this one moves the user's cursor within a text input: And this utility gets the distance between two points on a cartesian plane (something that comes up surprisingly often in projects with non-trivial animations): These utilities live in src/utils.js, and they come with me from project to project. So, I just made a graph folder within components and different views shared the graph components. Moreover, if you are not using CSS but something like Styled Components, your file extension may change from style.css to style.js too. Are you sure you want to hide this comment?

Col tempo diventer abbastanza grande che vorrai separare alcuni file dagli altri. Ad esempio, Atomic Design una metodologia di progettazione costruita su questo principio. In fact, I think it helps to think of this in terms of an HTTP request. Ci sono molti punti deboli associati allannidamento profondo delle cartelle nei progetti JavaScript. Whenever the bundler sees @helpers, it replaces that string with a relative path for that directory. No spam, no nonsense. If djamaile is not suspended, they can still re-publish their posts from their dashboard. However, in this scenario, eventually this one file will not be sufficient anymore for your React project. If a hook is specific to a component, I'll keep it alongside that component. As the application grows, components grow with them. Instead of being intuitive, the boundaries become totally arbitrary at best, and misleading at worst. Re-usable functions will be put in the components folder and it can be used by functional components in the views folder. Why have this file at all? parent and a regular component: Now these three containers have a smaller mapped surface than the +20 props parent, and props are not passed downs It seems to be like my VueJs folder stracture! Instantly share code, notes, and snippets. useState and useReducer ) but also for consuming React's Context. From here, I would use the components/ folder only for reusable components (e.g. FileViewer/FileViewer.helpers.js), but I'll realize that I need it in multiple spots. These graph components were not necessarily tied to a folder within views. That's why I like to have one folder for each React component: While the new style and test files implement styling and testing for each local component respectively, the new component.js file holds the actual implementation logic of the component. Se non riesci ad ottenere una lista di cartelle principali, puoi chiedere agli utenti del tuo prodotto di quali parti composto principalmente e usare il loro modello mentale come schema.

Every developer on the project will have their own conceptual model for what should go where, and I'll need to spend time acclimating to their view. The next step will help you to structure midsize to large React applications. Probabilmente vorrai ripensarci comunque dopo aver scritto del codice reale. For VS Code, we can add our aliases in jsconfig.json. I created an NPM package, new-component, which does all of this for me automatically. Whenever I want to create a new component, I need to generate: Fortunately, I don't have to do any of that manually. When I execute this command, all of the boilerplate is created for me, including the basic component structure I'd otherwise have to type out! Most React projects start with a src/ folder and one src/App.js file with an App component. In my experience as a React freelancer many React projects follow this organization of a React application. Therefore I have a folder called types where I can put in my Typescript types and interfaces. In this case we can reuse IProps instead of creating StateProps. But when I use Next.js, I do have /src/pages, with top-level components that define the rough structure for each route. The strutures of the application's redux state tree and the /app directory tree must be very similar if done right. Una modalit comune per strutturare i progetti posizionare file CSS, JS e i test in cartelle raggruppate per funzionalit o percorso. Why don't we have a separate /components and /containers folders like everyone else? What if I have a function that will help me accomplish some goal for the project, not directly tied to a specific component? Well, then our editor will fill up with index.js files! A domain may contain child domains or subdomains (domains that are only used by or relevant to their parent domain). https://dev.to/djamaile/how-i-structure-my-react-ts-applications-2021-145j, https://github.com/djamaile/react-boilerplate-2020, How to setup husky, eslint and prettier within minutes, How I structure my React /TS applications (2021). Also some components don't have own props or don't map any prop to dispatch, in those cases there's no point in exporting OwnProps or DispatchProps. Often, the boundaries are blurry, and different developers will make different decisions around what should go where.

Un altro modo popolare per strutturare i progetti raggruppare file simili, ad esempio: Alcune persone preferiscono andare ancora oltre e separare i componenti in cartelle diverse a seconda del loro ruolo nellapplicazione. Also, I create a generic request function with Axios. When we import src/components/FileViewer, the bundler will see that we're importing a directory and automatically load index.js. You might be wondering but where are the folders for your state management? and all the actions (action types, action creators, and thunks), reducers and selectors (and all their test specs and typings) Here's an example component, with all the files and directories required to accomplish my goals: Most of these files are the ones mentioned earlier, the files needed for the FileViewer component. They get declared above the components themself. However, instead of using the API directly in my React components, I like to have a service for it, because only this way I can guarantee that my components have only a little set of actively used date formatting options available for my application. It doesn't really matter which convention you use for your file names. I am using suspense to split the code of the views. While the former are often only used once in a React project, the latter are UI components which are used by more than one component. For a few years, I taught at a local coding bootcamp. Finally, I also have a constants.js file. And so, the distance between product features and the code features will drift further and further apart. Diventa pi difficile scrivere importazioni relative tra di loro, oppure aggiornare queste importazioni quando i file vengono spostati. You decide how far you want to take it here. Every other component should move to a respective feature folder. DEV Community 2016 - 2022. Secondly, the images folder and I think this folder speaks for itself. This file holds app-wide constants. I follow the rule of thumb that whenever a React component becomes a reusable React component, I split it out as a standalone file, like we did with the List component, to make it accessible for other React components. Storybook), utilities (e.g. These will follow the same structure as their parent. thus requiring updates on the test specs for the three of them, and the typings as well. Now it's when that index.ts file pays off, on the children components we just point it from the component file, This is also more performant since now a change in the store might trigger a re-render of a single container, Scegli uno degli approcci qui sopra (o creane uno tuo) e inizia a scrivere codice! Are you curious how I built that FileViewer component up there? Having so many props and following them down the component tree can make the code difficult to debug and also In most cases, this is possible, but it can be tricky to figure out. You're moving away from native JavaScript imports and doing something custom. A common question here: Where to put the src/ folder? At least that's what you get when you are using create-react-app. utils/ is another folder name I see quite often, but services makes more sense for the following import strategy). No setup configuration. It ALWAYS has an index.ts that exports the component. How to structure large React applications into folders and files is a highly opinionated topic. However, on the frontend with component-based UI libraries, this naming convention changed to PascalCase for folders/files containing components, because when declaring a component it follows a PascalCase naming convention as well. Tehse will follow the same structure as their parent. A Next.js project starts with a pages/ folder. It's even tolerable in a larger React application, whenever one component is strictly tight to another one. So instead of coupling a custom hook tightly to a component, you can put the implementation of it in a dedicated folder which can be used by all React components: This doesn't mean that all hooks should end up in this folder though.

boilerplates boilerplate spa frontend It'll get moved over to src/helpers. They're only needed when I'm working on the FileViewer component, and so I should only see them when I'm working on FileViewer. Here's my file, as an example: So, that's how I structure my React applications! The biggest issue is that Webpack aliases are non-standard. Let's start by talking about my priorities, the things I've optimized for. It's not uncommon for large projects to have thousands of React components. Alright, so you'll notice I choose to do two things here: I'll be honest: I don't have a good reason for making these decisions. It's an incredible time-saver, and in my opinion, it totally nullifies this drawback. Webpack is the bundler used to package up our code before deployment. Sometimes I do, if it's not something I can easily build myself. You'll be the first to hear about course updates, as well as any new blog posts I publish! Sometimes, a complex component will have a bunch of associated files. A utility is a generic function that accomplishes an abstract task. If you want to build a component library with Storybook, or create unit tests with Jest, these tools will need to be configured to understand your Webpack aliases. A meno che tu non abbia una ragione convincente per usare una struttura di cartelle profonda, considera di limitarti a un massimo di tre o quattro cartelle annidate in un singolo progetto. Pretty much every function in the lodash library is a utility, according to my definition. Usually when a bug is found, or a refactor is needed, it involves all the redux parts in a domain: For example, at some point you may have reusable React Hooks that can be used by more than one component. child containers instead: Say is now mapping +20 props, that passes down to the three children components, that also pass In general, there are two broad ways to organize things: Here's an example of how to structure code by feature: There are things I really like about this. So, having these files already configured for every project I do is a lifesaver. I could publish it through NPM to ensure consistency between projects, but that would add a significant amount of friction, and it's not a trade-off that has been worth it to me. may need to be shared accross projects (ie, the User domain might be shared between apps that use the same authentication system), But I did hit some interesting challenges, trying to render a recursive structure with React! This might sound like a big deal, but honestly, I feel like it's a small price to pay. "Sub-components", smaller components used exclusively by the main component, Constants or data shared between the component and its associated files, By function (components, hooks, helpers). As a result, the component can become quite bloated. Well, there is no one right way, but I've tried lots of different approaches in the 7+ years I've been using React, and I've iterated my way to a solution I'm really happy with. and returns the connected HOC. but we have cleaner, more performant code. redux logrocket and only accessible to Djamaile. Each component must have a types.ts with the following structure: Notice that all the properties in IDefaultProps are mandatory, and this is intended, so if we add a prop to the component that is optional, that means that it MUST have a default value. Good question! A naive approach would be to add more files next to each React component. As you can see I still have some files at the root level. However, this may be confusing, because ErrorTracking should be marked somehow as a service and not as a React component. In a Node.js world, this is still the status quo naming conventions. For example, here's a utility I use a lot. Hence the 5 step process to give you some guidance if things get out of hand. In the API folder, I keep my API routes and API calls. Having the .container.ts separated from the component itself makes the component easier to test (we just need to test the un-connected component, no need to mock a redux store). // this might not be needed if the component doesn't have internal state, // this might not be needed if the component doesn't consume the context. When I feel that is happening I will move the functions within the utils folder. Now, since each component has a .container.ts file we can just copy the parent's one to each of the children's In some cases (when ALL the component's props come from the state) the StateProps will match IProps. to the .container.ts file, and we do the oposite on the parent component. Very cool -- components vs views breakdown is interesting. changing an action may impact on the reducer, that may also impact on the selectors if the shape of the state is affected, Not all of the context is provided, but it should give you a pretty good idea about how it works! Message). Most of them are style-related (eg. TypeScript defined types), stories (e.g. Made with love and Ruby on Rails. That's new. Keep in mind that none of the shown approaches is set in stone. is it always a 1:1 view and component directory (ie: "home" exists in both) or how do those two directory structures scale over time? The name is up to you (e.g. . helper functions), or constants (e.g. When I start work on a new feature, I have to find the files, and they might not be where I expect them to be.

If you follow my function-based approach, it means you'll have an enormous set of unorganized components sitting side-by-side in src/components. To be fair, it is possible to avoid this worst-case scenario, but it's a lot of extra work for relatively little benefit, in my opinion. The second step follows the rule: Multiple files to rule them all. Furthermore, we have the famous components folder. In this blog, I have about 50 generalized, reusable hooks. Easy refactor. After all, this step is just about bringing the features together which allows teams in your company to work on specific features without having to touch files across the project. For every React project, I use Material-UI. I'll be honest, it's not my best work. It's too early to share much yet, but if you'd like to follow along, the best way is through my newsletter. I'm a freelance fullstack developer transitioning to Web 3. Exceptions prove the rule though. In addition, this is nothing I could tell my consulting clients when they ask me about this matter. You could also leave out the folder and put the ErrorTracking/ folder directly into Error/. Not only because more logic is added (e.g. more JSX with conditional rendering or logic with React Hooks and event handlers), but also because there are more technical concerns like styles and tests. Learn React by building real world applications. That's when we transition to step two. This directory contains all the redux modules of the application. I'm able to spend my time doing what I like: building quality user interfaces. At a higher scale of teams, it becomes tricky to "just move files around without a clear vision". The names of the folders are again up to you: If one of the feature components (e.g. But here's the problem: real life isn't nicely segmented like this, and categorization is actually really hard. Eventually, the features in the codebase will be conceptually organized around a product that no longer exists, and so everyone will just have to memorize where everything goes. I'm a Front-End Software engineer who will be responsible for the complete lifecycle of scalable, secure, and well-designed software products from research and design to implementation. The theme you're using is beautiful, colours really popup. At least you know exactly where to look! With Material-UI we can also create a custom theme and that is what we do in the theme folder. for that specific domain will live inside. For a while, a popular ESLint rule warned against defining more than one component per file. No, not all the components folders are 1:1 to the views folder. My rule of thumb is that I am never nesting components more than two levels, so the List and ListItem folders as they are right now would be alright, but the ListItem's folder shouldn't have another nested folder. Like in the example above, in a perfect world, we would be using a kebab-case naming convention for all folders and files, because PascalCase named folders/files are handled differently in the diversity of operating systems which may lead to bugs when working with teams using different OSs. An online course that will teach you how to build complex, rich, whimsical, accessible applications with React. And it makes it easier to quickly get a sense of how the app is structured. That said, I do generally find myself pulling non-trivial components into their own files, once I have the basic functionality working. Every approach prioritizes different things, makes different tradeoffs. The first step follows the rule: One file to rule them all.

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