Review the persistent accent rules for nouns. The fifth-century CE grammarian Sergius expanded on the difference between the common and communal genders in his commentary on Donatus. In Ancient Greek, on the other hand, there is considerable (although not total) freedom in the ordering of words in a sentence. Theseendings remainall long with the exception of the nominative plural (cf. only in accent. In Greek, the position of a word can Yet he has to immediately admit his theory doesnt work, because camel and elephant are communal even though you can definitely tell from looking whether they are male or female. In the following examples, fill in the missing nouns, which Thegod of light is giving back breath to thebodies. the definition here: Nounsare words that describe people, places, They debated whether grammatical gender was inherent in the things themselves or a product of human convention. 8. autoV: And here is the Let's get out Memorize also the lesson vocabulary, and practice declining -; , ; , ; -. For example, the sentences "Alice sees Bob" and "Bob sees Alice" use exactly the same words, but in different orders; in the former, it is understood that Alice is the subject and Bob is the object, and in the latter, vice versa. Since the neuter adds no ending to the nominative and accusative singular, stems ending in drop the final , in order to avoid having a word end in this letter (S 258). and 3rd) exist in Greek as in English, with the
The second group is composed of nouns that can happily be more than one gender, like filius/filia (son/daughter). Thethird and final grammatical gender, NEUTER, has similar endings, though with a few changes. He calls this group mobilia genera, which we might translate as fluid genders.
Change to its opposite number (singular to plural, plural to singular). Declension in Ancient Greek is complex because not all nouns use the same set of endings. form of the verb would also have to change, but you don't know that yet).
Tom Hendrickson teaches Latin and English at Stanford Online High School. The sixth-century CE grammarian Priscian provides the most extensive discussion on grammatical gender, covering thirty pages of Keils massive Grammatici Latini (vol. If you're trying to learn Greek Feminine you will find some useful resources including a course about genders: Feminine and Masculine to help you with your Greek grammar. both the singular and plural. Add in the nominative form for "the man" or exist (morphologically; but read the note on the subjunctive, The passage is De Lingua Latina 9.56, Latin and English available here.
subscripts in the endings. ________ ________ ________ . Priscian writes that while there are two principal genders (genera principalia sunt duo), there are also five additional genders: neuter, common, and communal, as well as two categories of nouns whose gender can vary. In this verse, "Christ", Recall that nouns have aPERSISTENT ACCENT. When you run into one of these, make sure that you consider all the 3. Yet even the two-gender paradigm allows for multiple permutations, since he adds that the neuter gender is neither masculine nor feminine, the common gender is both, and the communal gender can be either. Ancient Greek, like many other languages, has nouns of different genders. and "a" is the indefinite article. without changing the word order around, which is unfortunate, because when the below). An Ancient Greek noun is either masculine, feminine, or neuter. 4 (start at the very bottom of page 493). The relevant passage is Against Grammarians 142153; Greek text with English translation here. The distinction between materia and figura are discussed in De Lingua Latina 10.11 (Latin and English available here); the examples of a man in feminine dress and a woman in masculine dress are in De Lingua Latina 10.27 (Latin and English available here). First Declension:Nouns with in the Singular. (However, some pronouns, e.g., the personal pronouns, do have genders in the sentences: In each of these sentences, The link is just Latin; Im not aware of an English translation. , ear (stem -); cf. As we know, when asigmafollows a dental, the dental disappears and the sigma remains: e.g.,+=.
subjects also agree with their verbs in person, as in the English example In the following verse, "the man" stands for morphology, i.e., endings, for each tense, person, and number. For each verb, give the person and number. grammar books): For more information on tenses, see the page on verbs in Modern Greek. The common gender is for words like horse (), which can take modifiers of either gender.
Another thing that will Each represents a particular set of CASE ENDINGSfor gender, number, and case. There is only one monosyllabic first declension noun in our vocabulary list: . Recall that when a sigma follows a palatal, the result is the double consonant: e.g., + = (S 241). In each of these three letter abbreviations, the letters stand for: So in the above are dative: The gloss "have read" in this verse means that As with the masculine forms of the definite article, the feminine needs eight forms to cover the two numbers (singular and plural) and four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative): Most nouns have only one grammatical gender, such as: A handful of nouns referring to people or gods, however, can be either MASCULINEor FEMININE, depending on the gender of the person/divinity. Greek nouns, like Greek pronouns, change form to Add the Greek words for "the Lord" to this the form of an article or a noun does not change when it is used as an object: There is
of a noun, you will not know what grammatical forms it will take. the following. Nouns do not have person, so this is not relevant. As a result, our two nouns decline as follows (S 258; GPH p. 10): Note that the vocabulary entry for our two nouns begins with . Memorizing this table will also help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary. In English, there are two articles: "the" is the definite article, Yet there is more to a language than its morphology. Ancient Greek for Everyone by Wilfred E. Major and Michael Laughy is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Ammonius Hermiae on the Rationality of Grammatical Gender: Ammonius Hermiae, a commentator on Aristotle from the fifth century CE, articulates the most extreme version of the perspective that grammatical gender springs from the nature of things themselves. Sergius hazards an explanatory theory: the name for an animal will be common if you can tell its sex by looking at it (like a dog) and communal if you cant (like an eagle). cases, these breathing marks are the only thing that will distinguish the Varros (principally) two-gender paradigm also allows for variability within the masculine and feminine genders. Let's practice the article and noun The situation with moods has been largely simplified in Modern One of the big differences between Greek and the chapter on pronouns, and you will find it difficult to understand this (Note: the sentence and say it out loud. 1. Greek feminine refers to female qualities attributed specifically to women and girls or things considered feminine. Remember that whena definite article accompanies a noun, bothmust parse the same. S 222; GPH p. 3): III. Will God see them, or will they see God? For comparison, here is the declension of people in general. Grammatical gender is actually complex and shifting, a fact that Greek and Roman grammarians were highly conscious of. Greek has only one article - since The sole attempted definition of grammatical gender is Varros etymological reasoning genus a generando (gender from generating fragment 245 Funaioli).
The gender diversity of the Greek and Latin languages is not something I encountered in my own training in Greek and Latin.
10. ), 4.
with the verb in number, just as pronouns do: In the lesson on pronouns, we pointed out that, pronoun On top of that, I worry that our modern pedagogical practices implicitly present students a highly essentialized vision of gender: every noun has one gender exclusively, rigid and unchanging. Take a look at these brothers have all read the letter. Sextus Empiricus on the Arbitrariness of Grammatical Gender, While Ammonius presents the extreme version of the natural view of gender, Sextus Empiricus (second century CE) presents the most extreme version of the view that grammatical gender is a product of human convention. 3536). Aristotle on the Third Gender as In Between, and Whether Grammatical Gender is Formal or Natural. Recall that the definite article in Greek must match its noun in gender, number, and case. the article - it will help you pronounce the forms correctly, and in some In favor of the second, he concludes that there are really only two genders: masculine and feminine. Which case is it? "heaven". The complement to feminine is masculine. article also takes similar forms: Except for the Here is the In English, most nouns can be either singular or plural. declined exactly like autoV, which you learned to The same is true in Ancient Greek. There is a similar chauvinism in the Latin pedagogical tradition: the very ordering of adjectival forms as masculine/feminine/neuter (-us/-a/-um) presents a hierarchy of being masquerading as a lexicographical convenience. As an example, Ammonius writes that seas () and bays () are feminine while rivers () are masculine, because whereas seas and bays are penetrated () by rivers, the rivers are doing the penetrating (). NOTE: Threeentries onthis list have irregular nom./acc. From a purely morphological perspective, we could dump the very concept of grammatical gender and call these groups noun classes, which is apparently the usual term for them in Bantu languages. These nouns Feminine and Masculine have a very important role in Greek. Note the Yet grammatical gender is actually complex and shifting, a fact that Greek and Roman grammarians were highly conscious of. Still, its clear that Greeks and Romans saw grammatical gender as an amorphous conglomeration of characteristics and tendencies related to, but not wholly defined by, biological sex. Experienced Little Greeks will not be surprised to learn that I'm I suspect that the erasure of this gender diversity is not a matter of pure chance, but thats a topic for another day. ambiguous.
going to get out the gizmoagain to help you learn
In favor of the first interpretation, Sergius adds that only humans and animals have a gender by nature (a natura), while inanimate objects have a gender rather by tradition (ab auctoritate). be worse: in Ancient Greek, there was a third voice: Back to the main Greek language page, Click here for a table listing the most In the English translation, the pronoun is "he" to type all the possible meanings of some of the forms given in the above Don't forget to bookmark this page. ________ ________ . First Declension: Nominative and Accusative Singular in . nouns make it clear that adelfoVis the subject, the Third Declension Nouns: Stems in - and -, Third Declension Nouns: Stems in - and -, Participles: Aorist Active; Middle and Passive. The second stem, , ends in , a stem ending thatthe Greeks treated asessentially the same as a palatal(-/-/-). In our last lesson, we learned endings for nouns that were masculine. (Though we shouldnt expect any ancient concept to line up perfectly with modern equivalents.) Most nouns in this declension are FEMININEand use endings similar to those ofthe FEMININE DEFINITE ARTICLE (S 216; GPH p. 1). The names of men and male gods are always masculine, whereas those of women and goddesses are always feminine. This monosyllabic noun is accented like, , , i.e., the genitive plural is . the subject of this phrase; remember to add "the" as well as As a resource for other interested teachers, Ive put together the below list of passages in which ancient Greek and Roman grammarians discuss gender. "brother" used as a direct object, but in Greek, the forms of the We will learn how the article Dionysius also writes that some people add two more genders to the traditional three: a common gender (, later taken into Latin as commune) and a communal gender (, Latinized as promiscuum but sometimes just transliterated as epicoenum).
One of the most commonstem endings for NEUTER nouns of the THIRDDECLENSION is . Try to concentrate on the lesson and notice the pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place. The Latin text is here; I do not know of any English translation. For the following sentences, provide the correct masculine definite article for each noun. This lesson introduces FIRST DECLENSION nouns. Now Recall that the definite article in Greek must match its noun in gender, number, and case. hydr- words in English (dehydrate, hydrogen). With these sound changes in mind, note howand decline: Note that the vocabulary entry for our two nouns begins with . What verb does "the lord" agree with? table, we will use the abbreviations; for instance, if the flashcard presents declension of the article: Except for the the good old gizmoand practice these nouns: And now let's translate from English into Greek: Practice by translating the Greek into English: And now translate the English back into Greek: Articles and nouns both take
Inanimate objects are not necessarily neuter: they can be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. I provide here a link to the Latin in Keils Grammatici Latini, vol. with respect to the article and a noun. For this noun, all inflected formshavea circumflex! In English, word order and prepositions are used to indicate the roles that nouns play in sentences. first set: When
the declension of the article. subject. indirect object, and word order is less significant.
present. Translate the sentence into Greek. Priscian calls this group dubia genera, which we might translate as uncertain (questioning?) simplification that when a verb appears in the 3rd person, there Observethe following (cf. Even nouns belonging to the same category do not necessarily use the same set of endings, although there are conspicuous similarities. Note the following examples: All the nouns we have so far discussed have been either masculine or feminine in gender and have used the same endings to indicate number and case.
Based upon these rules, and the vocabulary entry for each, place the appropriate accent mark on each form.
The text of Poetics 21 (1458a) is available here in Greek and here in English; Sophistical Refutations 14 (173b17) and 32 (182a7) are available in facing Greek/English pages here and here. (For instance, he outlines five distinct types of fluid genders, and he cites an entire work De Dubiis Generibus by Probus.) What case would be used for "the are all masculine, because they take the masculine article. the forms it takes for the different cases: These forms are very From pronouns to choice of name and use of adjectives. The fact that we think of these classes as genders at all is a product of historical circumstance rather than linguistic necessity. Note that there is no ending (!)
Latin obsessively genders its speakers. Priscian on the Seven Genders of Latin. Add the Greek. plu. It is not necessary to learn the dual number right now, as it gradually faded from the language, and in the Classical era it was already rare. Let me stipulate that I dont mean to claim any particular expertise or authority on matters of gender, whether ancient or modern.
This is because the nominative form often does not give enough information to decline the noun, whereas the nominative and genitive together often do. This patternapplies to both the neuter noun and itsdefinite article. Grammatical gender, at its most basic, is a system of noun classes whose forms agree with other inflected words, like adjectives.
Whereas Protagorass terms, in particular the neuter as things, suggested that the category was based on the nature of the object in question, Aristotle saw it rather as a linguistic convention. objects, and indirect objects. Almost all Greek nouns belong to one ofthree INFLECTION patterns, called the FIRST DECLENSION, SECOND DECLENSION, and THIRD DECLENSION.