Higher mortality in pigs combined with decreased performance resulted in fewer production cycles per barn each year compared with baseline and thus fewer pigs reaching market weight per facility. The major contributors to GWP were feed production and emissions from manure storage. Armstrong T. A., D. J. Ivers J. R. Wagner D. B. Anderson W. C. Weldon, and Berg E. P.. 2012. To simulate elimination of AGP from the production in nursery phase, the MMER of wean-to-feeder pigs was increased by 12.7%. Average feed efficiency for the combined her of entire male and gilts improved over the baseline by 3.14 and 1.47% for wean-to-feeder and feeder-to-finish scenarios, respectively. NPB strategic plan and budget book, National Solar Radiation Database These data were used in combination with data obtained from peer-reviewed literature. Estimated potential change in cumulative nonrenewable energy use for alternative management practices. The SimaPro software platform was used to compare each management scenario to the baseline and for uncertainty analysis. When preventive use of antimicrobials, in addition to AGP, was eliminated GWP, cumulative energy use, and cumulative water increased use by 17.32, 18.40, and 15.58%, respectively. 2010. We recommend caution while interpreting the results of this study due to model uncertainties. Environmental impact trade-offs associated with using gestation pens in place of stalls are studied in this scenario. Performance of gestating sows in bedded hoop barns and confinement stalls. officials politicians B., Piao X. S., Kim S. W., Wang L., Liu P., Yoon I., and Zhen Y. G.. 2012. According to National Pork Board Task Force (2012, unpublished data), pigs spend approximately 42 d in wean-to-feeder barn and 114 d in feeder-to-finish barn. On the other hand, where simulations lie below the horizontal line, the alternative management practice resulted in a decrease in environmental impact. Antimicrobials are used in animal industry for disease prevention and animal health improvement (Ross et al., 2010), and as growth promoters (Kiarie et al., 2011). cDifference in means of a sustainability metric between a scenario and the baseline is statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). This indicates a strong sensitivity to specific implementation practices for each scenario. However, it is important to understand that even small production changes might have large environmental impacts. Keegan T., Dritz S., Nelssen J., DeRouchey J., Tokach M., and Goodband R.. For example, one of the parameters affecting pig growth is MMER. Growth performance and gastrointestinal microbial ecology responses of piglets receiving. Life cycle assessment of 6 pork production strategies for 3 environmental impact categories yielded a range of results from a 17% increase in global warming potential for removal of AGP and preventive antimicrobials to a 2.5% reduction in energy use for immunocastration. Improvest (Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog- Diphtheria Toxoid Conjugate, 0.2mg/mL), https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model, http://www.earthshift.com/software/US-EI-database, http://www.fao.org/docrep/t0690e/t0690e06.htm#chapter%204:%20the%20pig, https://www.pork.org/environment/environmental-impact-pig-farming/, http://www.pork.org/filelibrary/AboutUs/2012NPBStrategicPlanAndBudgetBook.pdf, http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/, http://www.smithfieldfoods.com/media/13087/smithfield_foods_gestation_stall_release_.pdf, https://www.smithfieldfoods.com/newsroom/press-releases-and-news/smithfield-foods-achieves-industry-leading-animal-care-commitment-unveils-new-virtual-reality-video-of-its-group-housing-systems, http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/ag101/porkphases.html, https://www.zoetisus.com/products/pork/improvest/index.aspx, No. There are increasing pressures on swine producers to modify their production practices based on public perception. Effects of production without use of either AGP or preventive antimicrobials on performance and sustainability metrics were studied in this scenario. The NRC model can be adjusted to account for the influence of animal activity or genetic differences. Chapter 4: the pig in A manual for the primary animal health care worker. Ross G. R., C. Gusils R. Oliszewski S. C. de Holgado, and Gonzlez S. N.. This scenario was evaluated by stimulating the growth of boars (uncastrated males) to 91 kg and gilts to 125 kg and resulted in 2.09% increase in GWP, 3.75% increase in energy use, and 2.25% decrease in water use. The uncertainty analysis provided a confidence interval around the means for each of the management practices. 2005. 2001. A., Simons J., Walker, et al. B., Park K. S., Kim M. K., Kim B., and Park S. C.. Evaluation of well-being, productivity, and longevity of pregnant sows housed in groups in pens with an electronic sow feeder or separately in gestation stalls. Each management strategy was evaluated based on the changes in the associated environmental impacts resulting from changes in unit processes.

Changes made to mortality rate and voluntary cull rate for uncertainty analysis of antimicrobial use scenarios, Mortality rate for uncertainty analysis was sum of respective mortality rates used for comparative analyses (2.9% for nursery; 3.9% for grow-finish) and changes to the mortality and voluntary cull rate, Sow barn parameters used for uncertainty analysis for gestation stalls and group housing. An uncertainty analysis for baseline and each of the alternative scenarios in the comparative study was performed using Monte Carlo simulation to assess robustness of the results. Environmental impact estimates for baseline and alternative US swine management practices, reported per kg live weight at the farm gate.

Concerns about food safety, human health, and animal welfare are valid, but it is also important to understand relationships and trade-offs or synergy between addressing those concerns and maintaining or improving environmental impacts. Cumulative nonrenewable energy use increased for production without growth promoting antimicrobials, production without growth promoting and preventive antimicrobials, and production without ractopamine. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. 2007. Thun R., Z. Gajewski, and Janett F.. The impact of management practices on sustainability metrics resulted from differences in pig performance parameters, manure production, feed consumption, etc. A pair-wise bootstrap hypothesis testing was used to evaluate statistical differences between baseline and alternative management scenarios (Neave and Granger, 1968). Overall, annual feed consumption was 7.65% lower compared with the baseline. McGlone J., Von Borell E., Deen J., Johnson A., Levis D., Meunier-Salan M., Morrow J., Reeves D., Salak-Johnson J., and Sundberg P.. For scenario simulation, hourly data from a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) (National Solar Radiation Database, 2005) was used. LCA provides quantitative management models to evaluate production processes, analytical options for innovation, and improved understanding of complexity in agricultural systems. Effects of stall or small group gestation housing on the production, health and behaviour of gilts. In 2007, Smithfield Foods Inc. (2007) announced a phase out of gestation stalls on company-owned farms over the next 10 yr and replace them with group pens. The predicted changes to GWP cannot be considered robust for the production of entire males, production without growth promoting antimicrobials, and gestation pen scenarios-specifically, the significant overlap of the range of outcomes for the alternative scenarios with the baseline suggests only directionality, but not statistical significance. Shen Y. This strongly suggests that if swine management practices are changed based on only one measurement criterion, it could bring undesirable outcomes across other metrics. Ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs of different sexual categories. Due to reduced ADG, pigs raised without ractopamine required 11 additional days in the grow-finish barn to reach 125 kg. These changes in the impact categories were statistically significant (P < 0.05) for all scenarios except for changes to GHG emissions for EM and changes to water consumption for PENS and NoAGP. Vaccination of boars with a GnRH vaccine (improvac) eliminates boar taint and increases growth performance. Patience J. F., Shand P., Pietrasik Z., Merrill J., Vessie G., Ross K. A., and Beaulieu A. Therefore, higher GWP observed in this scenario appears to be associated with a larger number of pigs required to reach annual live weight production demand. (2001) reported that immunocastration reduces the size of testes in male pigs suppressing aggressive sexual behavior. Dritz S., Tokach M., Goodband R., and Nelssen J.. Based on comparative and uncertainty LCA results, production without growth promoting and preventive antimicrobials and production without ractopamine increased GWP and cumulative water use. Feed consumption, manure production, number of days to market weight, etc. Without AGP and preventive antimicrobials, voluntary cull rate and mortality were each estimated to increase by 4% in the nursery barn. Each scenario evaluated a single alternative management practice, in which 1 key element was different from the baseline scenario. These changes in ADG and DFI increased total feed used in wean-to-feeder phase by 1.4%. This additional infrastructure requirement increases the GWP, which, amortized over an expected 10-yr life of the barn, partially offsets the lower operational GWP observed for this scenario. However, GWP, energy use, and water use increased when antimicrobials and ractopamine were removed. At a body weight of 96 kg, IC pigs were supplemented with 10 mg RAC per kg of feed by adding 0.05% Paylean-9 in the diet. of days between piglet removal and insemination, Change to voluntary cull rate (grow-finish). Average daily gain and DFI were 0.29 and 0.44 kg d1 for the wean-to-feeder phase and 0.78 and 1.74 kg d1 for a feeder-to-finish phases, respectively. Use of pens was assumed for gestation period only. The term mortality is used when animals die of natural causes. Better sustainability metrics observed for this scenario were attributed to increased ADG and FE. Effects of probiotic administration in swine. While the grow barn was an all-in all-out batch operation, the sow barn was simulated as a continuous operation, housing 1,500 animals at any time in individual gestation crates. The horizontal lines of each box represent the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of 1,000 Monte Carlo simulations and lower and upper extensions represent 10th and 90th percentiles, respectively. Life cycle assessment in the swine industry holds the promise of identifying inefficiencies in the system and changes to the sustainability metrics resulting from possible changes in management practices, which can be addressed to foster the long-term health of the industry. This was 1.56% increase in GWP, 1.75% increase in energy use, and 1.04% increase in water use. For the uncastrated (entire) male (EM) scenario, inputs similar to the IC scenario were used with exceptions of administration of GnRH inhibitors and use of RAC in diet. of piglets per litter surviving to weaning, No. An analysis of data obtained from peer-reviewed articles (Schmidt et al., 1985; Bates et al., 2003; McGlone et al., 2004; Anil et al., 2005; Harris et al., 2006; Jansen et al., 2007; Lammers et al., 2007; Weng et al., 2009) was performed to prepare scenarios for group and gestation housing (Table 4). Millet S., K. Gielkens D. De Brabander, and Janssens G. P.. To capture this effect, PPEC model was configured to simulate a second dose of GnRH when pigs reached body weight of 88 kg (Fabrega et al., 2010) by increasing MEI by 21% and reducing MMER and protein deposition by 12 and 8%, respectively (National Research Council, 2012). Meta-analysis of the effect of immunocastration on production performance, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds in pigs. 2003. 2018. Uncertainty analysis shows that the predicted changes to GWP and cumulative water use can be concluded with 75% confidence for: IC, NoPrev, and production without ractopamine scenarios. gasification emissions

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