As a result, Vietnam has experienced intensified Chinese coercion particularly in the maritime domain in recent years.
Considering it was just forty years ago that the two countries fought a brutal war and today have opposing views on human rights, freedom, and governing philosophies, this announcement is incredible. (The Philippines had raised the case under former president Benigno Aquino III to challenge the flimsy legal basis for Chinas sweeping territorial claims in the South China Sea within the nine-dash line.) As a 1998 defense white paper states, Vietnam established guiding principles for its defense policy in the Three Nos: no military alliance, no foreign military bases on its soil, and no aligning with one country over another. This is not the first time that discord between Vietnam and China has surfaced.
Viettel and another Vietnamese network provider, Mobifone, developed and built out the countrys 4G network in partnership with Nokia and Ericsson, though Chinese telecoms including ZTE did help develop the countrys domestic 3G networks. The pandemic has been disruptive to international diplomacy, just as it has to so many other aspects of everyday life. Many Southeast Asian countries views of the United States under the Trump administration have become increasingly negative. These changes included enacting a national security policy known as the Three Nos, which constrains Vietnams latitude to [form] military alliances, .