I looked at three-year periods (to smooth out the data) from 1914 to 2015, so on the graph below, the label 1916 represents the years 1914-1916.

(NFL, NCAA, Youth), What Is an Average Golf Score? Slugging percentage would be in the mix, too.

The one notable exception: the years 1995-1997 through 2000-2002, during which on-base percentage ruled. Thered be some support for OPS too, I imagine, though OPS is on the brink of cant-do-it-in-your-head. The stats are sometimes adjusted to factor in differences between parks as well.

That's a very good strikeout percentage, so he's doing well.

By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. With that said, Im happy to have you on the site and hope I can help you out in achieving your goals!

This brings about a question: Is batting average really as important as it is made out to be? The odds of reaching base after taking 4 balls is obviously 100%.

This is exactly why I created HEWCO, CCR, and BSM because it captures offensive value that none of these above metrics do. Enjoy!

the rise of the solo home run, which is practically useless, and I can prove that too.

This is where the walk comes into play. But slugging percentage explains scoring better in the period 1939-2015 and every subsequent span ending in the present.

Essentially, hitters must be lucky in order to get a hit, while drawing a walk guarantees them to reach base.

And it turns out that the choice of endpoints matter.

If you want to learn the formulas for comparing slugging percentages between players from different seasons, keep reading!

However, regarding batting or slugging percentage, strikeouts are considered the same as any other kind of out.

I think there is a market ineffeciency but it would be something like slg on Babip.

It allows teams such as the Chicago White Sox, despite an extremely low team batting average, to still compete and put up a lot of runs.

Well, I suppose we shouldnt look at on-base percentage in a vacuum, because OBP alone isnt the best descriptor of scoring.

It shows a hitters ability to reach base on a swing, a vital part of baseball.

To check, I looked at every team from 1914 through 2015 the entire Retrosheet era, encompassing 2,198 team-seasons. Hitters who are patient enough to work counts and take pitches are much more susceptible to walks than those who chase every first pitch.

One of these lesser-known rules is defensive indifference.

Every year, the best hitter in the game is generally considered to be the person who retained the highest batting average.

With slugging percentage now a common term in the baseball lexicon, youll have a better idea when you see it on a players stat line whether hes a slap hitter or a feared slugger. Like many baseball stats, this one often shows up without a decimal point. During the period 1998 to the present that you citethat covers 540 team-seasons, a decent samplethe correlation coefficient of runs per game to OBP is 0.905, R/G to SLG is 0.914, and R/G to OPS is 0.957.

If you want the info, email me at thecrazybaseballcoach@gmail.com.

Since the beginning of baseball, one stat has reigned supreme over all others: the batting average. The added benefit of all the homers, WAS NOT an added benefit.

Bonds single-season record broke an 81-year-old mark of .847 set by Babe Ruth in 1920. For example, eight players since 2005 have topped a .650 slugging average in a season.

CCR .745, .964, .635.

A lot of us would namewOBA or wRC+. First, theres obviously an overlap between slugging percentage and on-base percentage (i.e., hits), and just hitting the ball hard on contact doesnt fill the bill if you dont make enough contact. But while we are on the subject of errors, did anyone like the ERROR HR, Alcides Escobar hit in the bottom of the first inning of the first game of the world series for 2015?

Dee Gordon, Jose Iglesias, and Juan Pierre, also mentioned in the article, do not.

BB 82, 105, 92

The three players from the 1970s whom he points out as contact hittersRod Carew, Pete Rose, and Lou Brockas well as more contemporary guys like Jeter, Ichiro, and Gwynnall generated a lot of extra-base hits.

He clearly had his best year in 2013, but that was an age-27 career year for him, and was way better in 2015 as a slugger with 80% contact (139 wRC+, just 7 off his 2013 peak) than in 2014 with 90% contact (117 wRC+). I probably wouldnt use 1998 as my starting point given the steroid era, either, but no biggie either way.

However, because of all the factors that go into slugging percentage, there isnt necessarily a correlation between how good of a power hitter someone is and how good of a slugging percentage they have.

There is the bias of recent seasons playing out here, and I mean seasons 1998+.

Ive played and watched sports all my life and have coached them as well for the last few years.


Heres runs per game, with a correlation coefficient of -0.35. On base percentage shows the odds that a hitter does not make one of these three outs.

(R+RBI)-HR 193, 150, 157

A Complete Guide, Babe Ruth .6897 career slugging percentage, Ted Williams .6338 career slugging percentage, Lou Gehrig .6324 career slugging percentage, Jimmie Foxx .6093 career slugging percentage, Barry Bonds .6069 career slugging percentage, Hank Greenberg .6050 career slugging percentage, Mark McGwire .5882 career slugging percentage, Manny Ramirez .5854 career slugging percentage, Mike Trout .5821 career slugging percentage.

Nothing really correlates all that well. I calculated the correlation coefficient between a teams on-base percentage and its runs per game.

I think there are two reasons for on-base percentages popularity.

Better, because it captures everything, including the value of a contact out and error which NONE of the traditional stat lines do.

(You probably already knew that. Back in the 20s and 30s, fielding pct was lower, putting more guys on base and driving guys in and that is not captured in either SLG or OBP. Major League and Minor League Baseball data provided by Major League Baseball.

Learn a new word every day.

I dont care how you carve that one up, its nothing but a 4 base error.

Of course, you did years individually and in 3 year groups, so that probably avoids the problem. The game itself is taking contact hitters out of the game, and by extension lowering overall hits, run scoring, and total plate appearances in the game.


There are so many rules in baseball that fans have to keep up with that doing so can seem daunting.

HR 11, 8, 28

So of the easily calculated numbers the ones you might see on a TV broadcast, or on your local Jumbotron whats the best? All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published. The correlation coefficient between on-base percentage and runs per game for the 30 teams last year was just 0.644, compared to 0.875 for slugging percentage. Matt Carpenter 2013-2015

To calculate total bases, you take a batters total number of hits and add one additional base for each double, two for each triple, and three for each homer. by Retrosheet.

My article suggests that the best predictor of scoring is slugging percentage.

This is because all walks drawn only put the hitter on first base and will rarely drive in a run, while hits are capable of putting the hitter on 2nd or 3rd base, or even crossing the plate with a home run.

Or, put another way, theres a reason Pedro Alvarez and Chris Carter were non-tendered, and its not market inefficiency.

Beginning with 1946-1948, there have been 68 three-year spans, and in only 19 of them (28%) did on-base percentage do a better job of explaining run scoring than slugging percentage.

How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe Editor Emily Brewster clarifies the difference. Upton, on the other hand, carries a .381 on base percentage. To show an example on this comparison of statistics, two ballplayers who play the same position but have drastically different approaches will be examined: Robinson Cano (Yankees 2B) and BJ Upton (Devil Rays 2B/CF). Willie McCovey had 8197 At Bats, so his career slugging percentage is 4219 8197 = 0.5147 (rounded to 0.515). Slugging percentage is close behind, at 0.867. First, of course, isMoneyball. Willie McCovey scored a total number of bases equal to (1291) + (2 x 353) + (3 x 46) + (4 x 521) = 1291 + 706 + 138 + 2084 = 4219. "Very thorough.

On-base percentage has a higher correlation coefficient to scoring than slugging percentage for the period 1914-2015.

The idea that slugging wins is a fallacy because the trade off is clogging the bases consistently with contact. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 149,017 times.

To try to answer that question, I ran another set of correlations, comparing the slugging percentage minus on-base percentage correlations to various per-game measures: runs, hits, home runs, doubles, triples, etc.

The Giants led the majors with 39 home runs in 1917.

I guarantee you calc contact % way differently than I do.

and play-by-play data provided by Sports Info Solutions. A Rules and Usage Guide, A Detailed Guide to What Baseball Bats Are Made of, How Many Quarters Are in a Football Game?

Since this also awards one base for each double, you only need to add 1 more base per double to find the total.

It is calculated by counting walks as well as hits, so prolific walkers will often display a high differential between batting average and on base percentage. However, let's compare the two statistics in a more logical manner. Contact hitting typically means a singles hitter, but dont forget that singles add to slugging percentage too, not simply on base percentage, and a contact out or ROE does not get added to ave.obp.slg.ops. My name is Steven and I have a passion for sports and staying physically active. One thing about doing correlations over a long period of time is that the error rate changes alot.

With slugging percentage, the goal of the statistic is to assign a number to show how effective a hitter is at driving the ball and racking up extra-base hits. Thanks, Cyril.

Play-by-play data prior to 2002 was obtained free of charge from and is copyrighted With the added bases, 10+10+30=50, so add 50 to the 60 hits and you get 110 total bases. Despite this, there is more or less a defined benchmark for a good slugging percentage. In theMoneyball example, other clubs didnt see the value in Scott Hatteberg and his ilk.

OPS makes it seem like Matt Carpenters production didnt drop off, but it did drastically, both in terms of runs and rbis and in terms of contact.

Whats going on in those periods?

WAR 6.6, 3.0, 4.0 Then you can give 1 base mental error to Cespedes and 2 base physical error to him as well.

Id say that Bill James reaches an opposite conclusion, of sorts. Accessed 22 Jul. Now well dive into how you figure out what that number is. link to What Is a False Start in Football? That will work if you know the player's total plate appearances, and not just his "official" at-bats.

The highest single-season slugging percentage for. Ican do that in my head. That number is almost always written as three decimals, so it will be written as .550, meaning that our example batter will record, on average .55 total bases per at bat. Easy to understand.

Similarly, add two extra bases for triples, and three extra for home runs.

Why not just divide how many times a hitter gets on on base by at-bats?

OPS+ is a less commonly used statistic that adjusts for the league and park.

He has decided to go for homers and he has been a worse player for it. A Complete Guide, regularly appeared on the back of baseball cards, The Ultimate Resource on Hits in Baseball (1B, 2B, 3B, HR), What Is a Pinch Hitter in Baseball? Last Updated: March 29, 2019 Many of the most exciting plays in baseball are the result of big hits.

I imagine most of us who have bookmarked FanGraphs would not say batting average or RBIs.

They are also the only players in MLB history to record a slugging percentage over .800 in a single season, with each of them doing so twice.


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If you want to learn the formulas for comparing slugging percentages between players from different seasons, keep reading! Whats the single most important offensive statistic?

By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. This article has been viewed 149,017 times.

SLG 481, 375, 505 Let me show that graphically.

On the other side of the spectrum, 119 batters since 2005 have posted a slugging percentage below .350 in that timespan.

There is no worse example of this than Matt Carpenter the last 3 years.

All major league baseball data including pitch type, velocity, batted ball location, Ol Billy Beane, he knew what he was doing. A player with high slugging percentage has a high number of bases scored per opportunity at bat. What Is a False Start in Football?

For some context, since 2005, every American and National League leader in slugging percentage has fallen between .551 and .671. Home runs get paid for, singles and doubles not so much. The correlation between run-scoring and pure power, as measured by isolated slugging, is just 0.66. Then, plug the number you get into the original formula and solve to find the player's slugging percentage. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. The League stats are the average stats for all players that year.

At bats do not include all plate appearances, only the ones where the batter makes an attempt to score a base.

The difference between batting averages is less than 1 hit per 100 at bats, so they are nearly the same. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. On the other side, of the 119 men below .350 in a season, only one of them, Luis Castillo, hit over .300, batting .302 in 2009, thanks to the fact that he recorded only 16 extra-base hits for the entire season. There were dilution-of-talent issues through 1915, when the Federal League operated.

As defined by Major League Baseball, an at bat is granted when a hitter gets a hit, reaches via fielders choice or error, or is put out on a non-sacrifice. AVE 318, 272, 272 This is why the walk is such a vital part of baseball overlooked by many.

Taking that a step further, if Beane exploited a market inefficiency in on-base percentage at the beginning of the century, might there be a market inefficiency in slugging percentage today? A player with good on-base skills but limited power works at the top or bottom of a lineup, but if you want to score runs in todays game, you need guys who can slug.

You got on base, you mess with the pitchers windup and the fielders alignment, and good things can happen, scoring-wise. CoachingKidz.comis a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking toAmazon.com.

When there are a lot runs being scored the 1930s, the Steroid Era all you need to do is get guys on base, because the batters behind them stand a good chance of driving them in. Id guess that if you polled a bunch of knowledgeable fans, on-base percentage would get a plurality of the votes. Both have somewhat similar batting averages this season - despite a slow start, Cano is hitting .263 while Upton is at a clip of .271. Bikini, bourbon, and badminton were places first.

HEWCO/PA 1.000, .925, .967 Ignoring the bases out of the batter's control makes this a more accurate measure of offensive power. Simply put, the best hitters are always considered to be those who possess the highest. On base percentage includes walks, hits, and hit-by pitches, but doesnt factor in errors, fielders choice, dropped strike three, fielders obstruction, catchers interference, and sacrifice bunts. The second reason is that it makes intuitive sense.

Most of us have probably heard the terms false start, What Is Defensive Indifference in Baseball?

A daily challenge for crossword fanatics. The question is, is that a good number or not?

Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. I tossed out the fourclear outliers on the left side of the graph (1914-16, 1915-17, 1916-18, 1917-19), and the best correlations I got were still less than 0.40. Simple and easy to understand.". Well say that he collected 60 hits in those 200 at bats, with ten doubles, five triples, and ten home runs. To find the total bases, use the formula: total bases = hits + doubles + (2x triples) + (3x home runs).

This site is owned and operated by Coaching Kidz.

The slugging percentage formula is rather simple, as its calculated by dividing the total number of bases by the total number of at bats. The latest in the sports world, emailed daily.

There are many ways a team can commit the seemingly same penalty.

The people the teams are hiring are GOOD. And, it turns out, its pretty high 0.890. R+RBI 204, 158 185 So although the two reach base almost exactly the same amount on hits, Upton reaches base nearly 1 more time every 10 at bats than Cano simply because he is willing to take a few strikes in order to draw monumentally more walks. This only measures number of bases from hits, not from walks or hit by pitch.

On average, he scored a little more than one base for every two at bats. Likewise, moving towards the extremes, a .350 slugging percentage is poor and a .650 slugging percentage is elite.

Updated: Thursday, July 21, 2022 11:10 PM ET, Park Factors

When comparing their on base percentages, though, a huge difference is discovered. The second question is, what does this mean?

A players slugging percentage represents the number of bases they earn per at bat. LOB 144, 178, 169 Since World War II, slugging percentage has been, pretty clearly, the more important driver of offense.

Batting average, unsurprisingly, is worse (0.812), while OPS, also unsurprisingly, is better (0.944).

Contact outs 330, 325, 261

SO 98, 111, 151

And 2013, 0.896-0.894.

The Deadball years were extreme outliers. OBP 392, 375, 365

And 2012, and 2011, and 2010, and 2009, and every single year starting in theMoneyball season of 2002. Written out, the equation reads as this: [1B + (2B x 2) + (3B x 3) + (HRx4)]/AB.

World War I shortened the season in 1918 and 1919.

If I go to a game, and a batter goes 1-for-4 with a double and a walk, I know that he batted .250 with a .400 on-base percentage and a .500 slugging percentage. James argument that the marginal contribution of contact hitters increases as more are added, while the marginal contribution of sluggers decreases, is pretty provocative but makes sense.

Thats somewhat opposed to what I wrote, but I dont think the two positions are mutually exclusive. All UZR (ultimate zone rating) calculations are provided courtesy of Mitchel Lichtman. One key thing to note when calculating slugging percentage is that it only takes into account official at bats. A batter with an on-base percentage of .350 has reached base 3.5 times for every 10 at bats.

Slugging percentage, not on-base percentage, is most closely linked to run scoring in modern baseball. HEWCO/G 4.567, 4.152, 4.175 "Very informative. But neither of those are the types of things you can calculate in your head.

It might be interesting if you could compare what you did to what Bill James did recently in his article The Contact Theory and the Power Theory which is at, http://www.billjamesonline.com/the_contacct_theory_and_the_power_theory/.

My name is Steven and I love everything sports! Does that count for anything? The formula for OPS+ changes each year to make 100 the league average.

Three Blue Jays matched or beat that number last year.

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Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced searchad free! Other stats are used to calculate these, such as slugging percentage and OPS, or on base percentage + slugging percentage.

Recall the correlation coefficient between run-scoring and on-base percentage is 0.89 and between runs and slugging is 0.87. My use of three-year spans wouldnt correct for, e.g., the higher frequency of ROEs in 1918-20 compared to 2013-15.

Finally got around to reading thisbusy weekend.

Thanks, Jon. To calculate slugging percentage for a player, you will need two pieces of information: the total number of at bats and the total number of bases he accumulates.

The modern slugging percentage, using total bases per at bat, not per game, became an official National League statistic in 1923, and American League in 1946. What the statistic boils down to is determining the average number of bases that a batter would gain for every official at bat, meaning that both the skill to collect extra-base hits and the ability to do so rather often both are key factors in a high slugging percentage. That makes intuitive sense, in a way.

HEWCO 717, 656, 643

Despite the name, this statistic is actually an average, not a percentage. These are the types of plays that get fans out of their seats and on their feet and these plays are reflected in one popular stat that emphasizes swinging for the fences: slugging percentage.

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